Device external radiation treatment
Example of an ultrasound affected by prostate cancer (ultrasound can be used to guide a biopsy). Cancer develops from the tissues of the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system when cells will mutate to spread so uncontrollably.
These can spread (metastasize is) in migrating from the prostate to other parts of the body (especially bones and lymph nodes).
Prostate cancer occurs regardless of benign prostatic hypertrophy (or prostate adenoma). It is in the vast majority of cases adenocarcinoma.
Prostate cancer can cause pain, difficulty urinating, erectile dysfunction and other symptoms. Treatment is by surgery, radiotherapy, hormone therapy and sometimes chemotherapy, or combination of these methods.
The rate of breast cancer varies widely throughout the world. It is less widespread in South Asia and Far East, more common in Europe and even the United States. According to the American Cancer Society, breast cancer is rare among Asians and more prevalent among blacks (high rates may also be influenced by the increased effort detection).
Prostate cancer develops most often in men over fifty years. This is the type of cancer most common in men, where he is responsible for more deaths than any other cancer (except lung cancer). However, many men who develop prostate cancer symptoms do not, do not undergo any therapy and die for other reasons. Many factors of genetic origin, toxicological and diet-related seem involved in the development of this cancer.
We find outbreaks of cancer cells in 30 to 70% of cases in studies performed in autopsies of men 70 to 80 years; prostate cancer remains the most often asymptomatic: the probability of a man 50 years know a diagnosis of prostate cancer is only 10%. In 3% of cases, this cancer will be fatal.
Geography of Prostate Cancer
There are significant differences in the expression of this cancer, which seems more common among the black man, or where the family has a history pathological with this condition. From 1983-2002, while deaths from cancer were generally higher in the Caribbean city, deaths from prostate cancer and stomach were twice as common in the Caribbean in the mainland (while colorectal cancer and lung cancer were three times less frequent). This could be explained by both genetic reasons and food (green tea and / or soybeans or other foods rich in selenium) which appear to protect most Japanese living in Japan (while living in the United States is not).
They are not known with precision.
There is a genetic predisposition and the presence of certain genes seems slightly correlated with the onset of the disease. In particular, a mutation on chromosome 8 might explain the higher incidence of this cancer in black American.
Nutritional causes were discussed with a potentially protective role of lycopene. Similarly, exercise may have a slightly protective effect and tobacco a deleterious effect.
Symptomatology and detection
In most cases, prostate cancer is asymptomatic, ie it is discovered when it does not own event to it. It is most often found:
During blood tests, including investigation of the PSA (specific antigen for prostate, whose predictive value and use, without proven benefit to public health, has recently been called into question). The PSA is a protein normally secreted by prostate cells, but cancer cells secrete 10 times more than a normal cell. This property has raised many hopes in terms of screening. The blood level of PSA can be increased by many other factors (the prostate volume, infections and / or inflammation, the mechanical (digital rectal other)…) or decreased by certain treatments for benign hypertrophy (ministered). The thresholds of significance are therefore difficult to establish. It is recognized, however, rates of PSA between 4 and 10 ng / ml are doubtful, but it is clearly significant beyond. Some authors have proposed to bring the rate to its actual weight of the Prostate Protocol prostate, or assess the free PSA / total PSA, or the kinetic growth rate over 2 years. Scorer still uncertain for screening, the PSA level is, however, a key indicator for monitoring and treatment of cancers reported.
During a rectal examination, conducted as systematic or because of symptoms related to another illness (especially benign prostatic hypertrophy) incidentally, on parts of resection of the prostate during surgical treatment of prostate adenoma.
When it is symptomatic prostate cancer is most often at an advanced stage. It can lead to: acute retention of urine, hematuria, sexual impotence, impaired general condition pain and / or malfunction or failure of other organs associated with the presence of metastases
The diagnostic orientation based on two key elements: the digital rectal examination and determination of PSA blood. The abnormality of one or both leaves suspect prostate cancer. It will be confirmed or not, by taking a sample of the prostate (biopsy) for examination under a microscope. Only the positivity of these biopsies permits to plan and begin treatment of this cancer. Once confirmed the diagnosis of prostate cancer, we conduct a bone scan in search of bone metastases and abdomino-pelvic CT or MRI abdomino-pelvic to clarify the extension of the tumor in the prostate and houses of possible pelvic lymph node metastases, retroperitoneal or liver.